In a general disarmament conference, attended by delegates of 59 nations, was held in Geneva. The objective of NATO was to join the forces of all members in the defense of any member nation that might be attacked.
When Russia attempted to intervene in Turkey inthe ensuing Crimean War forced Russia to submit to a settlement by the Concert. That year, Denmark-Norway took up arms again, this time fighting on the side of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire.
Although the struggles that created it erupted some years earlier, the war is conventionally held to have begun inwhen the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand IIin his role as king of Bohemiaattempted to impose Roman Catholic absolutism on his domains, and the Protestant nobles of both Bohemia and Austria rose up in rebellion.
At first sight, this resembles the pyramid of alliances, patiently constructed by the statesmen of Europe years later, which plunged the continent into World War I.
Both Union and League were the products of fear; but the grounds for fear seemed to be receding. The Concert broke a democratic revolt in Spain, and Russia put down a nationalist revolt in Poland. Schmalkaldischer Bundan alliance designed to protect themselves from the Imperial action.
Eastern Europe, long used to dictatorial rule, leaned toward Communism.
The German states reduced from several hundred to 38, including Austria and Prussia were organized into a loose union called the German Confederation. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: Events in the very first year of the new century lead to major conflicts on both fronts.
These empires came into contact, and friction developed. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel as some bishops converting to Protestantism refused to give up their bishoprics.
This radically altered the balance of power in Europe and resulted in reduced influence over political affairs for the Catholic Church, as well as other religious groups. A defensive alliance between Austria and France is signed at Versailles in May The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria.
From this situation developed an armaments race and systems of alliances that eventually broke up the Concert. It had conquered territories from Germany, Poland, and Russia. In the major powers signed the Locarno Treaties, agreeing to maintain their existing frontiers and reaffirming their willingness to submit all disputes to the League.Sep 20, · Seventeenth-century Europe: an overview Thomas Munck, Seventeenth-Century Europe ().
Yet by the end of the century there had been significant changes: The witchcraft scare had virtually ended.
The Thirty Years' War (general survey) The Thirty Years' War (Paul Kennedy). November with special guests, Dark Horse Consort, Bruce Jacobs, organ. A new program in collaboration with Dark Horse Consort, an instrumental ensemble specializing in 17th-century brass music, this concert combines music and narrative to explore the devastating effects of the 30 Years War (), which claimed more than 8.
HISTORY OF EUROPE Prehistory Mediterranean People on the move Rival faiths Middle Ages 16th - 17th century By the last decades of the 17th century the dominant European power is (particularly in the Thirty Years' War); on the western borders of Germany, in France's attempts to expand towards the Rhine; and to the north of.
An Overview of European History. The Thirty Years' War () Turkey, though decreased since its high-water mark of conquest in the 17th century, still retained the greater part of the former Eastern Empire. Venice held an extensive sway in the Adriatic and the eastern Mediterranean; and Genoa held Corsica until it passed to France.
The Thirty Years’ War was a 17th-century religious conflict fought primarily in central Europe. It remains one of the longest and most brutal. Overview. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between and It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties.
In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European. The Holy Roman Empire.Download