In the case of Type III, other factors include how small a hole was left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, whether surgical thread was used instead of agave or acacia thorns, and whether the procedure was performed more than Female genital mutilation for example, to close an opening regarded as too wide or re-open one too small.
Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country Percentage of the 15—49 group who have undergone FGM in 29 countries for which figures were available in  FGM is found mostly in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa—east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania.
In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five. WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on: In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, Female genital mutilation is often used as an argument for its continuation.
However, it can help many problems caused by FGM. In Somalia and Sudan the situation was reversed: If someone is in immediate danger, contact the police immediately by dialling Girls in Uganda are told they may have difficulty giving birth without stretched labia.
Girls are more at risk of FGM being carried out during the summer holidays, as this allows more time for them to "heal" before they Female genital mutilation to school.
According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood lossas well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirthperhaps because of a long second stage of labour.
Progress at international, national and sub-national levels includes: The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. Building on a previous report fromin UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally.
This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis. In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinyamost of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category.
Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly. Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed type 3the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM. To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia.
Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. Was your genital area sewn? Third-degree laceration tearsanal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women.
FGM is therefore a global concern. Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina. Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out.
Complete obstruction of the vagina can result in hematocolpos and hematometra where the vagina and uterus fill with menstrual blood.
Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women.
FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage. It can be done in pregnancy or labour if necessary, but ideally should be done before the last two months of pregnancy.
Cultural and social factors for performing FGM The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities.This fact sheet has been updated to include the most current and commonly used terms for female genital cutting (FGC).
We are updating the title of this fact sheet and the way we refer to FGC by using the term female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C).
Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to. The United States is committed to ending female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C).
If you believe you are at risk of FGM/C, know of someone at risk of FGM/C, have questions about FGM/C, or have undergone FGM/C and need help or further information, please contact the number below. What Is FGM/C. May 02, · Getting a more accurate estimate of women who have undergone female genital mutilation in the United States is a key step in stopping the practice.
By LIRIEL HIGA May 22, Apr 02, · Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.Download