He proposed that the vast feudal estates be broken up and that the land be turned over to the Indians to reinvigorate the ayllus. If, instead of a mediocre metamorphosis of the ruling class, there had emerged a new class with vigor and purpose, unquestionably that transformation would have progressed more evenly and firmly.
On the one hand, this practice indicates that the peasant is treated as a thing and not as a person; on the other, it prevents the town from fulfilling the role that would maintain it and guarantee its development within the rural economy of the valleys. On the coast, a bourgeois economy is growing in feudal soil; it gives every indication of being backward, at least in its mental outlook.
Production of cotton and sugar has Mariategui seven essays thanks to the stimulus of credits obtained for that purpose and on the basis of appropriated lands and cheap labor.
In this way, a continual and increasing trade was established between South America and Western civilization. The new generation is recovering our past, our true history. The bourgeoisie that developed in Peru was Mariategui seven essays in its origin and structure to the aristocracy, which, though composed chiefly of the descendants of colonial landholders, had been obliged by its role to adopt the Mariategui seven essays principles Mariategui seven essays liberal economics and politics.
The great majority of the population is rural, with the Indian, who is usually and by tradition a farmer, making up four-fifths of the population. But the motive remained the same; only the times changed.
The Spaniards began to till the soil and mine the gold and silver. Almost the sole interest of the colonizers was the mining of Peruvian gold and silver.
The shorter distance and increased traffic between Peru and the United States and Europe. On the coastal haciendas, food crops amount to less than the minimum set by a law passed when food became very expensive because landholders were growing almost nothing but sugar and cotton in order to take advantage of the soaring prices of these two products.
Exports to England, which in made up Mining, on the other hand, employs a small number of workers—28, inaccording to the Extracto estadistico. The development of the city had to be sustained by the free activity of the peasant.
Many mortgaged estates already are being directly administered by exporting firms. The ayllus would form the basis of a new revolutionary society. In this period, the general historical process in Peru entered a stage that differentiated and separated it from the historical process of other countries in South America.
The producing forces of the colonies naturally fought to shake off these fetters. The Malthusian problem was completely unknown to the empire. In Peru, the meaning of republican emancipation has been violated by entrusting the creation of a capitalist economy to the spirit of the fief—the antithesis and negation of the spirit of the town.
Rather, it is because individualism under a feudal system does not find the necessary conditions to gain strength and develop. His Marxism has been described as a "National Marxism" and there is some truth to this. Guano and nitrates, first and foremost, generated a lively trade with the Western world during a period when Peru, in its unfavorable geographical location, had little hope of attracting the colonizing and civilizing currents that were sweeping through other Latin American countries.
Spanish America could not have achieved its independence had it not commanded a heroic generation, sensitive to the emotional tenor of its time, able and willing to carry out a genuine revolution.
The Incas unified and created the empire, but they did not create its nucleus. Collective work and common effort were employed fruitfully for social purposes. Assured of the transport of these products, it has little interest in relations with its surroundings.
He was only 35, a tragic loss. The democratic caudillo, who for so long had thunderously aroused the masses against the wealthy, now took pains to carry out a civilismo administration.
Marx and Engels argued that capitalism seeks to uproot all previous forms of social and economic relationships. I will have more to say about the Shining Path in my next post.
His embrace of this culture was not romantic or reactionary. The men may be keen, rather than reluctant, to go and work in the mines.
Within European feudalism, the elements of growth—the factors of town life—were, in spite of the rural economy, much greater than within criollo semi-feudalism. The British Empire, fated to become the real and unsurpassed representative of the interests of capitalist civilization, was taking Mariategui seven essays.
I have referred more than once to the tendency of the Spaniards to settle in the lowlands and to how they feared and distrusted the Andes, of which they never really felt themselves masters. It can compete unfairly with urban industry and commerce and is in a position to ruin them.
It continued to function as a ruling class in a nominally capitalist country, but remained hostile to the democratic values and enterpreneurialism of textbook examples of bourgeois democracies.Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana), first published inis Mariátegui's major statement of his position and has gone into many editions, not only in Peru but also in other Latin American countries.
José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira (14 June – 16 April ) was a Peruvian intellectual, journalist, political philosopher, and communist.A prolific writer before his early death at age 36, he is considered one of the most influential Latin American socialists of the 20th century.
Mariátegui's Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality () is still widely read in South America. Mariátegui's "Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality" (U. of Texas, ) is a masterpiece of Marxist thought that analyzes the class structure of Peru as well as its religion and literature.
Jose Carlos Mariategui Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality Essay One: Outline of the Economic Evolution.
José Carlos Mariátegui “The Problem of the Indian” from. Seven Interpretative Essays on Peruvian Reality. What is the “Problem of the Indian?” • It is a socioeconomic problem. • It is tied to the land tenure system of Peru’s economy • It can be resolved only through.
Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (Texas Pan American) [José Carlos Mariátegui, Marjory Urquidi] on mi-centre.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Jose Carlos Mariátegui was one of the leading South American social philosophers of the early twentieth century. He identified the future of Peru with the welfare of the Indian at a time when similar ideas were beginning to develop 4/5(1).Download